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THE PACKAGING MACHINERY INDUSTRY

Packaging machinery aids in packaging products before they are dispatched for storage and distribution networks. The primary applications of packaging machinery are in a wide range of industries of food and drink, healthcare, cosmetics, and other goods, as well as a range of industrial sectors where the packaging has become critical, with its usage increasing broadly in line with the global economy (Roy, 2017). Packaging machinery (PM) is used for a wide variety of functions that includes canning; filling and forming, bagging, packaging, unpacking, bottling, sealing, and lidding; inspection and check weighing, wrapping, shrinking, and heat sealing; case forming, labeling, and encoding; palletizing and depalletizing, and related applications (Interpack, 2016).

In this part, an overview of the packaging machinery industry is explained, followed by a listing of the advantages and disadvantages of the packaging machinery. Afterward, the packaging machinery matrix is illustrated, and the chapter is concluded by the breakdown of the family of machines.

1.2.1. Principles of Packaging Machinery Industry

The packaging machinery manufacturing industry is an influential business, and the packaging machinery sector is slightly different from other machinery sectors.

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In the sector, manufacturing is made as a part of the production/filling of another manufacturer. Considering both the product range and the type of packaging, a variety of packaging machines are available. While the machines are manufactured to a certain standard, they are varied with special modifications to the packages to be filled. The most accurate packaging machine must be ordered by determining the criteria and standards of the product and packaging well. When we consider the options of glass, plastic, metal, and paper/cardboard packaging materials and the labeling, packaging, and palletizing needed after filling, it would not be wrong to say that it is not easy to generalize in the packaging machinery sector.

Mainly, there are two types of packaging machines; automatic and manual. There is an increasing demand for automatic machines in the packaging industry, as they can improve the efficiency of manufacturing procedures and make the process easier and faster (Bix et.al., 2004: 11). Therefore, to increase exports and pre-export production, we need to produce the most economical product in every sector (Arıkan, 2011: 42). In order to increase the production volume and produce value-added products in the most economical and quality way possible, automation is needed in production. The automation of packaging machines, semi-automatic machines, fully automatic machines, and packaging lines utilize a wide range of benefits to the companies.

Although the packaging machine industry is critical part in production, researchers often mention packaging chain stages in their research but ignore packaging machines. Only specific studies in the food and beverage sector are part of the literature on a packaging machine, but they are constrained and product-specific. For this reason, the patent application articles are in the literature, but rather than an in-depth investigation, information is only given on the patent, production of machinery, or machine parts.

Moreover, commercial enterprises, start-ups, and even factories consider packaging machines as the last step in the new product design phase. For instance, retail is a significant consumer of different packaging machines (Saghir, 2004: 14). Therefore, the final product produced with thousands of difficulties has to wait for machine terminals to get on the market. Besides, there is a little research in identifying the nature and dynamics of the choice of packaging machinery, which includes an

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assessment of technological capabilities, labor requirements, employee safety, maintainability, serviceability, reliability, capability to integrate into the packaging line, capital cost, floor space, flexibility, energy requirements, egonomics, return on investment and quality of outgoing packages. It is critical to realize the importance of the packaging machine during the design process of raw material.

The packaging machinery sector has experienced an annual growth rate of about 5% over the last two decades and a transaction value estimated to reach $50 billion in 2020 (Cinchane, 2021). This growth will continue to maturity approximately with 5% in the next ten years (GVR, 2021). Plastic packaging machines use plastic raw materials and plastic products during the packaging process, and this situation further deepens the size of packaging machines within the packaging sector. According to Allied market research (Cinchane, 2021), the packaging machinery market in 2020 was valued at about a $50 billion increase at a CAGR of 4.7% to reach around $70 million by 2030.

The demand for packaging machinery is driven primarily by the increasing consumer goods demand, increasing adoption of robotic packaging machines, and the development of energy-efficient machines. Modern automated packaging machines are applied in various packaging stages and ensure that the stages are reduced in minutes rather than hours compared to the older versions. The other critical factor driving the market for packaging machinery is the increasing demand for packaging robots from several end-user industries. Packaging machines play an essential role in ensuring product safety throughout the supply chain.

1.2.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Packaging Machinery

It is essential to note that the benefits of packaging machinery listed in this chapter are identified from numerous researches and companies (Redpack Co. 2017, Ribble-Pack Co. 2018, Saghir 2004: 19) to find out the collective benefits for packaging machinery automation. These exploratory studies examine the perceptions of manufacturers, customers, and workers, who directly benefit from the packaging machines towards business impact and development. As a result, the exploratory studies consider the packaging machine manufacturer the highest beneficiary, and the

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following is the customer. Table 4 summarizes the findings from various interviews and beneficiaries.

Due to the limitations of the academic literature in this sector, these benefits provide helpful information for companies and academic literature. Specifically, the findings suggest that packaging machinery benefits should be maintained by company perceptions, qualitative research over companies, and individual experiences of professionals.

Table 4: Advantages of Packaging Machinery

Beneficiary

Redpack Co. (2017)

Ribble-Pack Co. (2018)

Saghir (2004)

Interviews

Manufacturers

- Labor charge- Cost-effective- Improve efficiency- Versatility- Save time, Money, and space

- Productivity - Lower cost - Meticulous quality

- Reduced wastage- Specialized packaging

- Use of natural forces- Heavy and delicate work

- Faster work- More accurate work- Strain on

- Reduce expenses- Improve efficiency- Reduce workforce- Increase standardization of final product

- Productivity

- Better working - Safer working - Cleaner and Workers conditions conditions - Cheap goods safer workplace

Source: Redpack Co. 2017, Ribble-Pack Co. 2018, Saghir 2004: 19

On the other hand the disadvantages of the packaging machinery are monotony, dependence, over-specialization, class conflict and unemployment, which are explained in Table 5.

Customers

- Promote brand awareness and loyalty- Excellent durability

- Recyclable packaging

- Efficiency

- Mobility of labor - More employment- Disagreeable jobs

- Cleaner and safer products - Custom packaging

- Marketing power

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Table 5: Disadvantages of Packaging Machinery

Disadvantages

Explanation

Monotony

Over-specialization Class Conflict

Packaging machinery has made the employee’s work monotonous and irksome. The employee has nothing to do except performing a few mechanical operations day in and day out, increasing nervous strain.

An employee has a narrow sphere of work, and he knows nothing else. This specialization increases the risk of unemployment and cramps the worker physically.The use of machinery is responsible for class conflict—the capitalist on one side and the laborers are on the other—the class-conflict results in the disruption of social harmony.

Dependence

Packaging machinery has increased our dependence on others. A minor flaw would conclude in the supply of the necessaries such as water and electricity being cut off at any time. This situation may mean not only the inconvenience but the severe dislocation of ordinary life.

Unemployment

Machinery creates unemployment simply because one machine can take the place of several men. However, the situation is not so simple to explain to employees, and it is only eliminating some of the work and upgrading some of the worker’s jobs.

Source: Redpack Co. 2017, Ribble-Pack Co. 2018, Ozarma, 2018

When the advantages and disadvantages of packaging machines are considered together, the most critical situation is the acceleration of production, the reduction of costs, and the professional appearance of the products.

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